The analysis of modern working conditions of coal and ore mining enterprises suggests that the bulk of the costs is incurred to establish and maintain the stability of mine workings. It is possible to improve the conditions of mine workings with the introduction in the production process of modern scientific – technical developments and improvements of well-known, cost-effective, ways and means of increasing the stability of mine workings. One of the most effective solutions, while ensuring the stability of the rock surrounding the production space is to use an anchoring system as the main type of rock support. This system compared with other types of support has several advantages: it speeds up the creation of tunnels by reducing the time spent on rock support; it improves the safety of the tunnel by minimizing the destruction caused by a blast, it allows for the possibility to maximize the mechanization of the anchoring process; it allows for the reduction of costs related to installing rock support and its maintenance, more particularly, it allows for savings in material cost and delivery; as well as allowing for the possibility of reducing the diameter of the tunnel by 18 to 25% without significant changes in its aerodynamic characteristics.
Anchoring is the fundamental process that determines the development strategy of the modern mine.
The main anchoring cost factors can be classified into four main groups: the cost of equipment and materials, the cost of logistics, the labor costs of labor and the costs of testing.
THE COST OF EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES includes
- the cost of anchors, washers, grabs, tensioning and torque tools,, nets and other fastening materials.
- the cost of materials for installation (cement, silicate polymer or capsules).
- the cost of depreciation of specialized equipment, as well as the cost of spare parts needed to maintain the equipment in working condition.
- the cost of drilling columns, rods and tips for drilling (diameter and length will vary depending on the type of rod).
- the cost of electricity used to install the anchors.
LOGISTICS COSTS include
- storage costs such as the cost to comply with the requirements for temperature, humidity and so on.
- transportation costs for delivery of anchor rods and materials.
THE LABOR COSTS include the
- remuneration of workers employed to drill the holes and install the anchors.
- labor costs also include the remuneration of the engineering staff (control over the quality of the installation of anchors and the state of the roof).
- the additional costs associated with conducting tests of the anchors.
- the cost of repairs related to a faulty installation of anchors.
THE COSTS OF TESTING includes the costs of conducting lab tests and in situ tests.